Thursday, September 3, 2020
Saltasaurus - Facts and Figures Name: Saltasaurus (Greek for Salta reptile); articulated SALT-ah-SORE-us Living space: Forests of South America Recorded Period: Late Cretaceous (80-65 million years back) Size and Weight: Around 40 feet in length and 10 tons Diet: Plants Recognizing Characteristics: Moderately thin form; quadrupedal stance; short neck and legs; hard plates lining back About Saltasaurus As titanosaurs go, the South American Saltasaurus was the half-pint of the litterthis dinosaur just weighed around 10 tons dousing wet, contrasted with 50 or 100 tons for progressively popular titanosaur cousins like Bruhathkayosaurus or Argentinosaurus. (The titanosaurs of the later Mesozoic Era developed from the great sauropods of the late Jurassic time frame, and are in fact included under the sauropod umbrella.) The modest size of Saltasaurus requests a persuading clarification, given that this dinosaur dates from the late Cretaceous time frame, around 70 million years back; at this point, most titanosaurs had advanced to the super-heavyweight class. The most probable hypothesis is that Saltasaurus was limited to a remote South American biological system, lacking plentiful vegetation, and advanced down so as not to debilitate the assets of its propensity. (Unexpectedly, Saltasaurus was the main distinguished titanosaur; it took extra disclosures for scientistss to understand tha t most individuals from this variety were considerably more noteworthy.) What set Saltasaurus and different titanosaurs separated from their sauropod precursors was the hard covering coating their backs; on account of Saltasaurus, this protective layer was so thick and bumpy that scientistss at first mixed up this dinosaur (found in Argentina in 1975) for an example of Ankylosaurus. Obviously, infant and adolescent titanosaurs pulled in the notification of the various tyrannosaurs and raptors of the late Cretaceous time frame, and their back plates advanced as an ostensible type of resistance. (Not even the most arrogant Giganotosaurus would decide to focus on a full-developed titanosaur, which would have exceeded its adversary three or multiple times over!)
Posted by Aubrie Sisson at 5:02 AM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Psychological well-being During the 1950's and 60's everybody was treated similarly, crazy. Regardless of whether you had despondency or schizophrenia, you were typically treated dependent on your sex and your conduct. Current emotional wellness is a great deal not the same as in those days. During the 1950's deinstitutionalization began to get mainstream, despite the fact that organizing somebody was the best strategy and the principal way they treated somebody. This became famous in light of the fact that there was overstaffing and poor everyday environments. They normally moved them to a local location or an outpatient office where they would be dealt with. To make life simpler on the individuals leaving the psychological organization they at last made antipsychotic medications to make then progressively ordinary. This creation was an astounding disclosure. As individuals have advanced so has medication. Furthermore, the beginning of antipsychotic drugs began to help numerous individuals as therapeutic treatment turned out to be more mainstream than imstitionalizing everybody. In the present society there has been a lot more advances in innovation, information, and medication. Presently in America it's increasingly basic to go to treatment to help with your issues and to get medication to help cause you to feel better. Numerous individuals have a type of psychological maladjustment, it's normal and you aren't dealt with totally different from others. McCleary 2 At last, a larger number of individuals are analyzed today than they were during the 50's. Investigate your work or school and numerous individuals in there have a type of psychological instability. In the 1950's we had not so much information but rather more individuals organized. McCleary 3 Works Cited History of Mental Health Treatment. Dual Diagnosis, www.dualdiagnosis.org/emotional wellness and-fixation/history/.
Posted by Aubrie Sisson at 6:15 PM
Friday, August 21, 2020
I know, I was that sad circumstance. I was so miserable, the idea of Ã¢â¬Ëliving a calm life,Ã¢â¬â¢ wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t even on my rundown of objectives, past or future Ã¢â¬ ¦.. I had a medication issue throughout the previous 33 years, up until around 4 years prior. I will depict the procedure of how I conquered my habit. For some, individuals battling with habit, the greatest and hardest advance towards recuperation is the first: Admitting that there is an issue, and be willing and open to change. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s where my first Step came into center. I knew that a medication issue existed, yet wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t ready to try and consider a change. At the point when it came to Meth, I additionally realized that where it counts inside myself, I was frail, and that my life had gotten unmanageable. So the Denver Metro Task Force and the SWAT group settled on that choice for me. Inside the brief timeframe edge of a couple of hours, my life, and everything in it, including my family and creatures were torn away from me, as I was placed in prison on Manufacturing charges, with a ,000 bond. I was down for the long stretch. There is no enchantment slug or single treatment that works for everybody. Medication treatment is certainly not a speedy and simple procedure. Essentially, the more drawn out and increasingly extraordinary the medication use, the more drawn out and progressively extreme the treatment youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need. Lamentably, a great many people wonÃ¢â¬â¢t find support until they are edgy and have come up short on some other choices. Subsequent to arriving in a desperate predicament, truly, it is then that I got agreeable. This progression is the thing that I called Ã¢â¬ËThe rock pit. Ã¢â¬â¢ This was my detoxification period. It was not all that much. Without precedent for a long time, I turned out to be intentionally mindful of my condition, and ended up truly living a hellacious bad dream called my life. IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure I looked like strolling demise, as my condition mirrored my discouraged mental state. It was difficult to make sense of on the off chance that it was the temperature of the room or my internal heat level that was dropping, because of me descending hard! Everything I could accomplish for the principal month was sit and genuinely shake; I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get warm to spare my life. I had on the two arrangements of my prison regalia, two sets of socks, and my military cover folded over me, as I would drink hot tea or outright heated water at whatever point I was wakeful. That was another change that was harsh. Fixing my bodyÃ¢â¬ ¦I rested as much as could reasonably be expected, which was rarely enough. I would wake up tired and would be promptly all set back to rest. There were steady interferences for the duration of the day that kept me conscious. The main great rest was during the evening time and it was rarely enough. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t ever imagine that I would get made up for lost time with the rest that I expected to cause me to feel typical againÃ¢â¬ ¦ever. Examining, as I compose this procedure about how I conquered my habit, I genuinely bumbled, very coincidentally over the 12 Steps of NA, or AA. As I read the Steps, I am actually very astounded, in light of the fact that they are precisely the same Steps that I took without realizing they were the notorious 12 Step Program. Despite the fact that I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do them fundamentally in the request that they are recorded, I accomplished each Step, altogether, to its fruition. How stunning is that?! ItÃ¢â¬â¢s quite obvious to me, I call it Divine Intervention. As I was overpowered with my circumstance, and felt absolutely alone, I was scaredÃ¢â¬ ¦really frightened. Despondently, I started to implore as I sobbed underneath my cover. I openly gave myself over to the third Step. I intentionally settled on the choice to give my will and my life to the consideration of God as I comprehended Him to be. Next, the fourth Step was to make a looking and daring stock of myself. I followed, with the fifth step, when I admitted to God and to myself the specific idea of my wrongs. I at that point proceeded with the sixth Step. I was totally prepared to have God expel every one of these imperfections of my character. Promptly following with the seventh Step, I HUMBLY approached God to expel my longing for Meth. This was the most significant advance, in my recuperation. When this procedure was finished, it was at this particular second, that an overwhelming feeling of harmony encompassed me, filling my entire being with a feeling of smoothness. Which is the specific importance of the second Step-I came to accept that a Power more prominent than myself could reestablish me back to mental stability, and HE did precisely that. As I proceeded through my detainment, my relationship kept on developing with God, as He was with me at all times, did I ever feel alone. Stage 11 obviously advises us to look for through supplication and reflection, and to improve cognizant contact with God, imploring just for information on His will for me and the ability to complete that. After jail, my multi month remain in ACRC shelter furnished me with a steady calm condition, while I took classes that showed me backslide counteraction, and the intellectual aptitudes required to have the option to adapt to day by day pressure factors that could lead back to medicate use. These classes likewise instructed me to perceive my triggers, so I had the option to keep a nearby rule on my conduct, so I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t fall into Ã¢â¬Ëold personal conduct standards. During this time, I qualified for preparing in the field of Floral Design, through the Empowerment Program, since I was an ex-criminal. I was put into an occupation at LehrerÃ¢â¬â¢s Flowers as a botanical originator, as a feature of my instructional class. As I worked my way through the asylum, I fused Steps 8 and 9 into my day by day schedule. Stage 8 and 9 educated me to make a rundown of the considerable number of people that I had hurt, and to have me be straightforwardly ready to offer some kind of reparation to such individuals at every possible opportunity. I did this one day, by acquainting myself with a District 4 cop, and saying thanks to him for assaulting my home. I revealed to him that he had spared my life by capturing me, and that I was exceptionally thankful for the additional opportunity at life. I additionally included another progression of my own that I felt was basic, and that was to FORGIVE. Without absolution, there can be no fruitful recuperation. Not exclusively should you excuse others that have hurt you previously, you should likewise pardon yourself, since God excused you for your wrongdoings, so should you do as such. While I was in prison, standing by to be condemned, I composed a letter to the man answerable for Ã¢â¬Ësetting me upÃ¢â¬â¢ to be struck. I had discovered who he was through the Discovery records that were introduced to me by my attorney. The Discovery archives showed what proof they had against me, and the names of who were answerable for transforming me into the police. I composed that man, and revealed to him that I excused him for setting me up, and afterward I proceeded to say thanks to him for sparing my life. Despite the fact that my future was as yet unsure and obscure, I realized that sometime in the future, I would be free and living the manner in which God had intended for my life to be. We should always remember Step 10. Continuously keep on taking an individual stock, and when we are incorrect, to quickly let it out. This keeps the record clean and shows us modesty. Which I may include, this entire experience, from starting to its culmination was about lowliness. Truth be told, Step 12 comes into center with my Spiritual Awakening, as I connected with myself all through this excursion, and understood that God acknowledged me and adored me, with every one of my deficiencies, right where I was. I needed to deal with myself, that with the entirety of my shortcomings, I needed to figure out how to acknowledge myself for what I am, and what I am most certainly not. In doing as such, the uniqueness of my own individual and my self-esteem developed day by day, with the goal that I may in the long run develop into the individual who God implied for me to be. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t surrender regardless of whether youÃ¢â¬â¢ve attempted and bombed previously. Recuperating from fixation is a long procedure, one that requires your complete consideration, time, responsibility. There will be wildernesses to become mixed up in, mountains to ascend, and valleys to battle over. Remain engaged, set explicit quantifiable objectives, be persistent, and have confidence in yourself, you can do it.
Posted by Aubrie Sisson at 3:57 PM
Tuesday, June 9, 2020
1.0 Executive Summary The offshore ocean wave energy resource, as a derivative form of solar energy, has considerable potential for making a significant contribution to the alternative usable energy supply.Wave power devices are generally categorized by the method used to capture the energy of the waves. They can also be categorized by location and power take-off system. The energy extraction methods or operating principles can be categorized into three main groups; (1) Oscillating water Column (OWC) (2) Overtopping Devices (OTD) (3) Wave Activated Bodies (WAB); Locations are shoreline, near shore and offshore. This report discusses about Terminator wave energy devices which extend perpendicular to the direction of wave travel and capture or reflect the power of the wave. These devices are typically onshore or near shore; however, floating versions have been designed for offshore applications. 2.0 Introduction Traditional sources of energy such as oil, gas, and coal are non-renewable. They also create pollution by releasing huge quantities of carbon dioxide and other pollutants into the atmosphere. In contrast, waves are a renewable source of energy that doesnt cause pollution. The energy from waves alone could supply the worlds electricity needs. The total power of waves breaking on the worlds coastlines is estimated at 2 to 3 million megawatts. In some locations, the wave energy density can average 65 megawatts per mile of coastline. The problem is how to harness wave energy efficiently and with minimal environmental, social, and economic impacts. Ocean waves are caused by the wind as it blows across the open expanse of water, the gravitational pull from the sun and moon, and changes in atmospheric pressure, earthquakes etc. Waves created by the wind are the most common waves and the waves relevant for most wave energy technology. Wave energy conversion takes advantage of the ocean waves caused primarily by the interaction of winds with the ocean surface. Wave energy is an irregular oscillating low-frequency energy source. They are a powerful source of energy, but are difficult to harness and convert into electricity in large quantities. The energy needs to be converted to a 60 or 50 Hertz frequency before it can be added to the electric utility grid. Part of the solar energy received by our planet is converted to wind energy through the differential heating of the earth. In turn part of the wind energy is transferred to the water surface, thereby forming waves. While the average solar energy depends on factors such as local climate and latitude, the amount of energy transferred to the waves and hence their resulting size depends on the wind speed, the duration of the winds and the duration over which it blows. The most energetic waves on earth happen to be between 30 degrees to 60 degrees latitude, in general the waves generated are stronger on the southern parts of the countries (John brook, ECOR). Wave power devices extract energy directly from the surface motion of ocean waves or from pressure fluctuations below the surface. Wave power varies considerably in different parts of the world, and wave energy cant be harnessed effectively everywhere. It has been estimated that if less than 0.1% of the renewable energy available within the oceans could be converted into electricity, it would satisfy the present world demand for energy more than five times over. A variety of technologies are available to capture the energy from waves. Wave technologies have been designed to be installed in near shore, offshore, and far offshore locations. Offshore systems are situated in deep water, typically of more than 40 meters (131 feet). Types of power take-off include: hydraulic ram, elastomeric hose pump, pump-to-shore, hydroelectric turbine, air turbine and linear electrical generator. Some of these designs incorporate parabolic reflectors as a means of increasing the wave energy at the point of capture. 3.0 Type of Wave Energy Converters Ocean waves represent a form of renewable energy created by wind currents passing over open water. Many devices are being developed for exploiting wave energy. The energy extraction methods or operating principles can be categorized into three main groups (Harris Robert E. et al.): Oscillating Water Columns (OWC) Waves cause the water column to rise and fall, which alternately compresses and depressurize an air column. The energy is extracted from the resulting oscillating air flow by using a Wells turbine Overtopping Devices (OTD) Ocean waves are elevated into a reservoir above the sea level, which store the water. The energy is extracted by using the difference in water level between the reservoir and the sea by using low head turbines Wave Activated Bodies (WAB) Waves activate the oscillatory motions of body parts of a device relative to each other, or of one body part relative to a fixed reference. Primarily heave, pitch and roll motions can be identified as oscillating motions whereby the energy is extracted from the relative motion of the bodies or from the motion of one body relative to its fixed reference by using typically hydraulic systems to compress oil, which is then used to drive a generator. The wave activated bodies (WABs) can be further categorized in sub-groups describing the energy extraction by the principle motion of the floating body (heave, pitch and roll). A variety of technologies have been proposed to capture the energy from waves based on above extraction methods; Some of the technologies that have been the target of recent developmental efforts and are appropriate for the offshore applications being considered are terminators, attenuators and point absorbers (U.S. Department of the Interior, May 2006). Figure 1: Schematic drawings of WEC devices for operating principles and principal locations(Harris Robert E. et al.) The many different types of wave energy converters (WECs) can be classified in to various ways depending on their horizontal size and orientation. If the size is very small compared to the typical wavelength the WEC is called a point absorber. In contrast if the size is comparable to or larger than the typical wavelength, the WEC is known as line absorber, this can also be referred to as terminator or attenuator. A WEC is called terminator or attenuator if it is aligned along or normal to the prevailing direction of the wave crest respectively (John brook, ECOR). The relationship between the three main classifications Principal Location Operating Principle Directional Characteristic: These classifications are shown in Figure 2, presenting the possible operating principles for the location and the directional characteristics. At the shoreline the only feasible operating principles are oscillating water columns and overtopping devices, which are terminators. Figure shows that at near shore and offshore, point absorber or attenuator devices can only be WABs, whilst for terminator devices all three categories of the operating principles are possible. OWCs and OTDs are static energy converters of the terminator kind. As a result their mooring has to be stiff, restraining modes of motions but allowing for adjustment towards a parallel wave approach and for tidal ranges. The station keeping requirements for the mooring of wave activated bodies can be either static or dynamic. Figure 2: Possible operating principles for the principal location and directional characteristic 3.1 Attenuators Attenuators are long multi-segment floating structures oriented parallel to the direction of the wave travel. The differing heights of waves along the length of the device causes flexing where the segments connect, and this flexing is connected to hydraulic pumps or other converters (U.S. Department of the Interior, May 2006). 3.2 Point Absorbers Point absorbers have a small horizontal dimension compared with the vertical dimension and utilize the rise and fall of the wave height at a single point for WEC (Harris Robert E. et al.). It is relatively small compared to the wave length and is able to capture energy from a wave front greater than the physical dimension of the absorber (James, 2007). The efficiency of a terminator or attenuator device is linked to their principal axis being, according, parallel or orthogonal to the incoming wave crest. The point absorber does not have a principal wave direction and is able to capture energy from waves arriving from any direction. As a consequence the station keeping for the terminator and attenuator has to allow the unit to weathervane into the predominant wave direction, but this is not necessary for the point absorber (Harris Robert E. et al.). 3.3 Terminators A Terminator has its principal axis parallel to the incident wave crest and terminates the wave. These devices extend perpendicular to the direction of wave travel and capture or reflect the power of the wave. The reflected and transmitted waves determine the efficiency of the device (Harris Robert E. et al.). These devices are typically installed onshore or near shore; however, floating versions have been designed for offshore applications. (U.S. Department of the Interior, May 2006). There are mainly two types in Terminator WEC. 3.3.1 Oscillating Water Columns (OWC) The oscillating water column (OWC) is a form of terminator in which water enters through a subsurface opening into a chamber with air trapped above it. The wave action causes the captured water column to move up and down like a piston to force the air through an opening connected to a turbine (U.S. Department of the Interior May 2006). The device consists essentially of a floating or (more usually) bottom-fixed structure, whose upper part forms an air chamber and whose immersed part is open to the action of the sea. The reciprocating flow of air displaced by the inside free surface motion drives an air turbine mounted on the top of the structure. 22.214.171.124 Efficiency of Oscillating Water Column (OWC) The efficiency of oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy devices are particularly affected by flow oscillations basically for two reasons. (1) Because of intrinsically unsteady (reciprocating) flow of air displaced by the oscillating water free surface. (2) Because of increasing the air flow rate, above a limit depending on, and approximately proportional to, the rotational speed of the turbine, is known to give rise to a rapid drop in the aerodynamic efficiency and in the power output of the turbine. A method which has been proposed to partially circumvent this problem consists in controlling the pitch of the turbine rotor blades in order to prevent the instantaneous angle of incidence of the relative flow from exceeding the critical value above which severe stalling occurs at the rotor blades (see Gato and Falcao, 1991). Although considered technically feasible (Salter, 1993) this has never been implemented at full scale owing to mechanical difficulties. Alternately, the flow rate through the turbine can be prevented from becoming excessive by equipping the device with air valves. Two different schemes can be envisaged, in the first one, the valves are mounted between the chamber and the atmosphere in parallel with the turbine (by-pass or relief valves, on or near the roof of the air chamber structure) and are made to open (by active or passive control) in order to prevent the overpressure (or the under pressure) in the chamber to exceed a limit which is defined by the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbine at its instantaneous speed. In the second scheme a valve is mounted in series with the turbine in the duct connecting the chamber and the atmosphere. Excessive flow rate is prevented by partially closing the valve. In both schemes, the air flow through the turbine is controlled at the expense of energy dissipation at the valves. Theoretically the two methods, if properly implemented, are equivalent from the point of view of limiting the flow rate through the turbine. However, the resulting pressure changes in the chamber are different (reduction and increase in pressure oscillations in the first and second cases, respectively). Consequently the hydrodynamic process of energy extraction from the waves is differently modified by valve operation in the two control methods. The main purpose of this work is to analyse theoretically the performance of an OWC wave energy device when valves are used to limit the flow through the turbine. Both schemes are considered and compared: a valve (or a set of valves) mounted in parallel with the turbine (by-pass or relief valve) or a valve mounted in the turbine duct. The hydrodynamic analysis is done in the time domain for regular as well as for irregular waves. The spring-like effect due to the compressibility of the air is taken into account and is discussed in some detail. Realistic characteristics are assumed for the turbine. Numerical results are presented for simple two-dimensional chamber geometry for whose hydrodynamic coefficients analytical expressions are known as functions of wave frequency. 3.3.2 Overtopping Devices (OTD) Overtopping devices have reservoirs that are filled by impinging waves to levels above the average surrounding ocean. The released reservoir water is used to drive hydro turbines or other conversion devices. Overtopping devices have been designed and tested for both onshore and floating offshore applications. It gathers the energy by waves overtopping into a raised reservoir, and extracting this by draining the water through low head turbines. OTD consists of three main elements: Two wave reflectors. Attached to the central platform these act to focus the incoming waves. The main platform. This is a floating reservoir with a doubly curved ramp facing the incoming waves. The waves overtop the ramp which has a variable crest freeboard 1 to 4 m and underneath the platform open chambers operate as an air cushion maintaining the level of the reservoir. Hydro turbines. A set of low head turbines converts the hydraulic head in the reservoir (Tedd James et al., 2005) 126.96.36.199 Overtopping theory The theory for modeling overtopping devices varies greatly from the traditional linear systems approach used by most other WECs. A linear systems approach may be used with overtopping devices. This considers the water oscillating up and down the ramp as the excited body, and the crest of the ramp as a highly non-linear power take off system. However due to the non-linearities it is too computationally demanding to model usefully. Therefore a more physical approach is taken. Figure 4 shows the schematic of flows for the Wave Dragon. Depending on the current wave state (HS, Tp) and the crest freeboard Rc(height of the ramp crest above mean water level, MWL) of the device, water will overtop into the reservoir Qovertopping. The power gathered by the reservoir is a product of this overtopping flow, the crest freeboard and gravity. If the reservoir is over filled when a large volume is deposited in the basin there will be loss from it Qspill. To minimize this, the reservoir level h must be kept below its maximum level hR. The useful hydraulic power converted by the turbines is the product of turbine flow Qturbine, the head across them, water density and gravity (Tedd James et al., 2005). In coastal engineering the average flow Q is converted into non dimensional form by dividing by the breadth of the device b, gravity g and the significant wave height HS: In the case of the floating OTD it has been seen that there is a dependency on the wave period. The dominant physical explanation for this is the effect of energy passing beneath the draft of the structure. Figure 6 Layout of OTD 188.8.131.52 Wave Reflector Wings One of the most distinctive aspects of the Overtopping WEC is the long slender wings mounted to the front corners of the reservoir platform. These are designed to reflect the oncoming waves towards the ramp. A wider section of wave is available to be exploited with only a moderate increase in capital cost. The overtopping volume in a wave is very dependent on the wave height; therefore by providing only a moderate increase in height, much more energy can overtop the ramp. In order to choose the correct lengths, angles, and position of these wings extensive computer modelling is used. Secondary bonuses of the presence of the wave reflector wings include: better weather-vaning performance to face the waves, lower peak mooring forces, and improved horizontal stability of the main platform. As the aft and rear mooring attachment points are separated further, the yaw of the platform is more stable. Therefore the device will not turn away from the predominant wave direction, and will also realign itself faster as when the wave direction changes (Tedd James et al., 2005). Lastly the reflectors wings act as stabilisers to the device. As they float under their own buoyancy they counteract any list of the platform. This is important as the more horizontal the platform is kept the less water is spilt and so the more efficient the device operation. 184.108.40.206 Low Head Turbines and Power Train Turbine operating conditions in a WEC are quite different from the ones in a normal hydro power plant. In the OTD, the turbine head range is typically between 1.0 and 4.0 m, which is on the lower bounds of existing water turbine experience. While there are only slow and relatively small variations of flow and head in a river hydro power plant, the strong stochastic variations of the wave overtopping call for a radically different mode of operation in the OTD. The head, being a function of the significant wave height, is varying in a range as large as 1:4, and the discharge has to be regulated within time intervals as short as ten seconds in order to achieve a good efficiency of the energy exploitation (Tedd James et al., 2005). On an unmanned offshore device, the environmental conditions are much rougher, and routine maintenance work is much more difficult to perform. Special criteria for the choice and construction of water turbines for the WEC have to be followed; it is advisable to aim for constructional simplicity rather than maximum peak efficiency. Figure 6 shows the application ranges of the known turbine types in a graph of head H vs. rotational speed nq. The specific speed nq is a turbine parameter characterizing the relative speed of a turbine, thus giving an indication of the turbines power density. Evidently, all turbine types except the Pelton and the cross flow type are to be found in a relatively narrow band running diagonally across the graph. Transgressing the left or lower border means that the turbine will run too slowly, thus being unnecessarily large and expensive. The right or upper border is defined by technological limits, namely material strength and the danger of cavitations erosion. The Pelton and the cross-flow turbine do not quite follow these rules, as they have a runner which is running in air and is only partially loaded with a free jet of water. Thus, they have a lower specific speed and lower power density. Despite its simplicity and robustness, the cross flow turbine is not very suitable for OTD applications (Tedd James et al., 2005). Figure 7 Head range of the common turbine types, Voith and Ossberger 220.127.116.11 Performance in Storms Survivability is essential, and Overtopping devices are naturally adapted to perform well in storm situations, where the wave will pass over and under the device with no potential end-stop problems. 18.104.22.168 Wave Prediction Performance of almost all wave energy converters can be improved with prediction of the incoming waves. The cost to implement would be low as the control hardware is typically in place, only the measuring system and improved control techniques need to be developed. To explain the concept behind the device a simple example can be used. If a measurement of some wavelengths ahead of the wave energy converter shows large waves passing, then at a given time later this energy will be incident on the device. The control of the device can then be altered quickly to extract this larger energy, e.g. by increasing hydraulic resistance to an oscillators motion allowing more energy to be captured within the stroke length, or by draining the reservoir of an overtopping device to allow for a large overtopping volume(Tedd James et al., 2005). The challenges are threefold; to implement a system for measuring the waves approaching the ramp, to accurately transform this into usable input for the control systems, and to construct new control strategies to make the best use of this. The standard approach for performing such deterministic sea-state prediction involves discrete frequency domain techniques. This is computationally intensive, as the two Fourier transforms must be made to convert from the time domain to the frequency domain and return to the time domain. 3.4 Energy Capture and Practical Limits The power captured from waves by the primary mechanical conversion (before secondary conversion to electrical power) can be related to the energy in the incoming waves over a certain width. Theoretical values have been established in some cases. For a heaving axi-symmetric body the maximum capture width is the inverse of the wave number. The capture width is often compared to the front width of the device. This width ratio can be larger than one for a point absorber with small dimensions compared to the wavelength. Viscous effects reduce efficiency. For an OWC, Wang et al. (2002) found that the capture width ratio may reach a value of 3 and above at an optimum wave period. For Pelamis, Retlzler et al. (2001) found a capture width up to 2 in regular waves and around one in random seas (Specialist Committee V.4, 2006). A continuous or a semi discrete array of wave energy converters acting as an absorbing wall perpendicular to the wave direction is called a terminator and its capture width equals the width of the device and is not related to the length of the incident waves. As the wave conditions are stochastic, the tuning parameters of the energy converters are compromises between the optimum values at various sea conditions. The capture width must be established for each sea state. Fixed devices are subject to sea level variation according to tidal effects. This is critical for fixed oscillating water columns and fixed overtopping systems whose performances are dependent on the mean sea level. The intake of an OWC must be located at an optimised design level from the mean free surface. The height of an overtopping system is also optimised for sea states occurring at a given mean sea level. Therefore, sites with minimal tide are preferred. From this point of view floating devices are more suitable. The immersion of a floating device can also be tuned with respect to the actual sea state. For instance the Wave Dragon overtopping device is partially floating on air chambers and its draught can be modified (Specialist Committee V.4, 2006). The performance of the overtopping device is sensitive to the distribution of the overtopping rate. The more variable the overtopping flow into the reservoir, the larger the capacity of the reservoir and turbines must be to achieve the same performance. 4.0 Mooring Requirements The two major requirements for a WEC mooring are to withstand the environmental and other loadings involved in keeping the device on station, and to be sufficiently cost effective so that the overall economics of the device remain viable. The following list shows the requirements that need to be considered for WEC moorings systems (Harris Robert E. et al.): The primary purpose of the mooring system is to maintain the floating structure on station within specified tolerances under normal operating load and extreme storm load conditions. The excursion of the device must not permit tension loads in the electrical transmission cable(s) and should allow for suitable specified clearance distances between devices in multiple installations. The mooring system must be sufficiently compliant to the environmental loading to reduce the forces acting on anchors, mooring lines and the device itself to a minimum; unless the stiffness of the mooring itself is an active element in the wave energy conversion principle used. All components must have adequate strength, fatigue life and durability for the operational lifetime, and marine growth and corrosion need to be considered. A degree of redundancy is highly desirable for individual devices, and essential for schemes which link several devices together. The system as a whole should be capable of lasting for 30 years or more, with replacement of particular components at no less than 5 years. The mooring must be sufficient to accommodate the tidal range at the installation location. The mooring system should allow the removal of single devices without affecting the mooring of adjacent devices. Removal of mooring lines for inspection and maintenance must be possible. The mooring must be sufficiently stiff to allow berthing for inspection and maintenance purposes. Contact between mooring lines must be avoided. The mooring should not adversely affect the efficiency of the device, and if it is part of an active control system it must also be designed dynamically as part of the overall WEC system. Revenues from WECs, in comparison to the offshore industry, are smaller and their economics more strongly linked to the location, installation costs and down time periods. The mooring system has an important impact on the economics and it is necessary to provide, at low installation cost, a reliable system that has little downtime and long intervals between maintenance. The suitability of design approaches from the offshore industry for WECs are ranked in Appendix I (Harris Robert E. et al.). 5.0 Environmental Considerations Conversion of wave energy to electrical or other usable forms of energy is generally anticipated to have limited environmental impacts. However, as with any emerging technology, the nature and extent of environmental considerations remain uncertain. The impacts that would potentially occur are also very site specific, depending on physical and ecological factors that vary considerably for potential ocean sites. As large-scale prototypes and commercial facilities are developed, these factors can be expected to be more precisely defined (U.S. Department of the Interior, May 2006). The following environmental considerations require monitoring (U.S. Department of the Interior, May 2006). Visual appearance and noiseare device-specific, with considerable variability in visible freeboard height and noise generation above and below the water surface. Devices with OWCs and overtopping devices typically have the highest freeboard and are most visible. Offshore devices would require navigation hazard warning devices such as lights, sound signals, radar reflectors, and contrasting day marker painting. However, Coast Guard requirements only require that day markers be visible for 1 nautical mile (1.8 km), and thus offshore device markings would only be seen from shore on exceptionally clear days. The air being drawn in and expelled in OWC devices is likely to be the largest source of above-water noise. Some underwater noise would occur from devices with turbines, hydraulic pumps, and other moving parts. The frequency of the noise may also be a consideration in evaluating noise impacts. Reduction in wave height from wave energy converterscould be a consideration in some settings; however, the impact on wave characteristics would generally only be observed 1 to 2 km away from the WEC device in the direction of the wave travel. Thus there should not be a significant onshore impact if the devices were much more than this distance from the shore. None of the devices currently being developed would harvest a large portion of the wave energy, which would leave a relatively calm surface behind the devices. It is estimated that with current projections, a large wave energy facility with a maximum density of devices would cause the reduction in waves to be on the order of 10 to 15%, and this impact would rapidly dissipate within a few kilometers, but leave a slight lessening of waves in the overall vicinity. Little information is available on the impact on sediment transport or on biological communities from a reduction in wave height offshore. An isolated impact, such as reduced wave height for recreational surfers, could possibly result. Marine habitatcould be impacted positively or negatively depending on the nature of additional submerged surfaces, above-water platforms, and changes in the seafloor. Artificial above-water surfaces could provide habitat for seals and sea lions or nesting areas for birds. Underwater surfaces of WEC devices would provide substrates for various biological systems, which could be a positive or negative complement to existing natural habitats. With some WEC devices, it may be necessary to control the growth of marine organisms on some surfaces. Toxic releasesmay be of concern related to leaks or accidental spills of liquids used in systems with working hydraulic fluids. Any impacts could be minimized through the selection of nontoxic fluids and careful monitoring, with adequate spill response plans and secondary containment design features. Use of biocides to control growth of marine organisms may also be a source of toxic releases. Conflict with other sea space users, such as commercial shipping and fishing and recreational boating, can occur without the careful selection of sites for WEC devices. The impact can potentially be positive for recreational and commercial fisheries if the devices provide for additional biological habitats. Installation and Decommissioning: Disturbances from securing the devices to the ocean floor and installation of cables may have negative impacts on marine habitats. Potential decommissioning impacts are primarily related to disturbing marine habitats that have adapted to the presence of the wave energy structures. 6.0 Discussions A vast number of parameters influence (and interact with) the net power production from any WEC: Overtopping, determined by Free-board (adjustable in Wave Dragons) Actual wave height Physical dimension of the converter (ramps, reflectors etc. Outlet, determined by Size of reservoir Turbine design Turbine on/off strategy Mooring system, free or restricted orientation toward waves Size of the energy converter Wave climate Energy in wave front (kW/m) Distribution of wave heights Availability Theoretical availability; Reliability, maintainability, serviceability Accessibility on the site Maintenance strategy In general terms wave energy generation has the following advantages and disadvantages. Advantages: The energy is free no fuel is needed and no waste is produced Not expensive to operate and maintain Can produce a significant amount of energy. Disadvantages: Depends on the waves variable energy supply Needs a suitable site, where waves are consistently strong Some designs are noisy Must be able to withstand very rough weather Costly to develop Visual impact if above water or on shore Can disturb or disrupt marine life including changes in the distribution and types of marine life near the shore Poses a possible threat to navigation from collisions due to the low profile of the wave energy devices above the water, making them undetectable either by direct sighting or by radar May interfere with mooring and anchorage lines with commercial and sport-fishing May degrade scenic ocean front views from wave energy devices located near or on the shore, and from onshore overhead electric transmission lines. 7.0 Conclusion Despite inventors actively making systems to capture power from the waves, for the last two centuries, there is still not a wide application of wave energy devices as power generators. The availability of devices to fit different applications is not the problem the technology is definitely there. The reality is that the only long term problem is making the technology work at a cost of power which a consumer is willing to pay. The system will work itself out. The price of fossil fuel generation will become more and more expensive and wave generated power will fall in price. One of the biggest difficulties is in introducing a new, fledgling technology into a commercial market dominated by subsidised low cost fossil fuel and nuclear generation. 8.0 References HARRIS ROBERT E., JOHANNING LARS WOLFRAM JULIAN Mooring systems for wave energy converters: A review of design issues and choices. JAMES, T. (2007) Testing, Analysis and Control of Wave Dragon, Wave Energy Converter. Civil Engineering. Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark, Aalborg University. SPECIALIST COMMITTEE V.4 (2006) Ocean Wind and Wave Energy Utilization. 16th International Ship and Offshore Structures Congress, 1. TEDD JAMES, KOFOED JENS PETER FRIIS-MADSEN ERIK (2005) Renovation of the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning Prototype. Department of Civil Engineering. Aalborg, Aalborg University. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (May 2006) Technology White Paper on Wave Energy Potential on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf. Minerals Management Service Renewable Energy and Alternate Use Program Appendix I: Possible Mooring Configurations And Suitability For Wave Energy Converter The wording high, medium and low is mainly used to describe the suitability of these mooring configurations in relation to safe station keeping and moderate installation costs.
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Sunday, May 17, 2020
Nature dictates that survival is the key to life, improving oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own situation is in higher consideration than improving the wellbeing of a mass. Humans are naturally corrupted in such a way that they manipulate events to their own liking and prosperity. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Crucible,Ã¢â¬ written by Arthur Miller, characters in Salem are driven by self-promoting ulterior motives through righteous justification. Consistently, Salemites undermine others in effort to establish self-gain. This dissembling triggers a mass adherence for a selfish cause. Righteous justification for self-promoting ulterior economic or social gains are not only exposed and characterized by Arthur Miller, but are still relevant throughout modern society. For instance, Thomas Putnam uses the death of his children as a facade to extend his ulterior capitalistic motives. By using his daughter Ruth to fabricate accusations, Putnam condemns civilians and then profits by taking their land. Salem stands by his efforts due to the misrepresentation of the accused and falsely believe that the condemning is ethical. False righteous means for economic and imperialistic expansion have been executed for centuries. Propaganda, exploitation and manipulation are recurring methods of self-gain through conquest. One such instance is the CIA and International Monetary Fund covertly operating to exploit the third-world for the benefit of the corporate west. In 1954, the CIA staged a coup d etat in Guatemala against the democraticallyShow MoreRelatedThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1269 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAt first glance, the playwright Arthur Miller in The Crucible highlights the historical significance of the Salem Witch Trials of 1692, but in fact it is an allegorical expression of his perception of McCarthyism. If the reader has some background information on Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s victimization as a communist, it is evident that the play is a didactic vessel illustrating the flaws of the court system in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. The communist allegations were launched at government employees, entertainers and writersRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1681 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof their way to the last dying breath to make sure they leave with a good or bad reputation. In one of the recent lite rature study in class Ã¢â¬Å"The CrucibleÃ¢â¬ by Arthur Miller, Miller uses characterization to illustrate reputation throughout the play. Ã¢â¬Å"The CrucibleÃ¢â¬ takes place in Salem, Massachusetts. It is based upon the Salem witch trails. In Ã¢â¬Å"The CrucibleÃ¢â¬ , we journey through the life of three characters who reputations plays a major role in the play. The three characters are John Proctor, AbigailRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1333 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAs the various characters in The Crucible by Arthur Miller interact, the dominant theme of the consequences of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s nonconformity begins to slide out from behind the curtains of the play. Such a theme reveals the gripping fear that inundated the Puritans during the seventeenth century. This fear led to the famous witch-hunts that primarily terrorized women who deviated from the Puritan vision of absolute obedience and orthodoxy. Arthur Miller presents his interpretation of the suffering by subtlyR ead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller998 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmotivated by jealousy and spite. The Crucible is a four-act dramatic play production that was first performed on January 22, 1953. Arthur Miller used dialogue within the characters to cover the multiple themes; conflicts and resolutions, plus the few directions for the different actions of the play. 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But the third definition, and the one that I think fits the best for this book, is a place or situation in which different elements interact to create something new. In my mind, this fits because all of the characters had their little grudges and dirty secrets. But when all th ose seemingly little things interact, they formed somethingRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1285 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Rationale, Morality, Stereotypes, Pressure, Self-Censorship, Unanimity, and Mindguards. Groupthink has also taken place in our history a a country. The play, The Crucible by Arthur Miller is about a the real-life Salem Witch Trials that happened in 1692 - 1693, in Salem, Massachusetts. Some symptoms of Groupthink found in the Crucible are Rationale, Pressure, and Self-Censorship. The Groupthink symptom, Rationale, is described as when victims of Groupthink ignore warnings: they also collectivelyRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller811 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages While The Crucible, by Arthur Miller, is only a four act play, it still resembles the format of a five act play. The five-act structure evolved from a three-act structure, which was made famous by Roman Aelius Donatus. Donatus came up with three types of plays: Protasis, Epitasis, and Catastrophe. The five-act structure helped to expand the three act structure, mainly made famous by Shakespeare through his many tragedies. Even though The Crucible contains only four acts, it still has the commonRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1052 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBuddy Al-Aydi Ms.Healy English 9 CP 14th October 2014 The Crucible Essay The Crucible was a novel written by Arthur Miller in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. It was written in a format of the play, portraying an allegory of the Salem Witch-Hunts led by Senator Joseph McCarthy. The book is known to have a inexplicable plot. This plot is advanced by multiple characters in the book in order to ensure that the reader maintains interest with the material that is being read. The farmer, John Proctor, would be theRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller841 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Crucible is a chaotic play, throughout this American classic Arthur Miller takes the reader through multiple events of terror and insanity. While creating a great on-stage play, Arthur Miller portrays his life through the events, the characters, and plot of The Crucible. Using vivid imagery and comprehensible symbolism, Miller manipulates the real personalities of the characters and events in 1600 Salem, Massachusetts to create a symbolic autobiography. Throughout this play, the reader experie nces
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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife. The second half of this opening sentence of the novel reveals that the universal truth is nothing more than a social truth. When claiming that a single man must be in want of a wife, Jane Austen reveals that the reverse in also true; a single woman is in, perhaps desperate, want of a husband. In nineteenth century Britain, what people did and their behaviour was very much governed by the social class they were born into. Class distinction in Jane Austens time was in fact very rigid. The land-owning aristocracy belonged to the highest rank of the social ladder. The class immediately below them was the gentry who hadÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The reader can see two very distinct partnership ideologies, voiced by Charlotte Lucas and Elizabeth Bennet. After Charlotte has voiced her views, the more progressive Elizabeth reacts with laughter, assuming that Charlottes strategies are much like her own and that she would actually never act in this manner. These different partnership ideologies collide when Elizabeth rejects Mr. Collins because she does not love him, followed quickly by Charlotte accepting his marriage proposal out of sheer practicality. Elizabeths romantic view of marriage results in her feelings of disappointment and shock when she finds out. Elizabeth is bli nd to Charlottes practical reasons for marrying Mr. Collins and she can not conceive of Charlotte being happy in such a marriage. Austen clearly shows that the Lucas family feel triumphant about the proposal. They are ready and anxious to sacrifice their daughter to a fool in order to guarantee her economic security: Miss Lucas, who accepted him solely from the pure and disinterested desire of an establishment, cared not how soon that establishment were made. Jane Austen is not a romantic, but she conveys clearly that she disapproves of marriage based on such materialistic grounds. Austen uses the character of Charlotte to stand as a contrast against Elizabeth. Both of these young girls are clearly without financial security, but one is prepared to sacrifice her life in order to guarantee thisShow MoreRelatedThe Theme Of Love And Marriage In Pride And Prejudice1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Pride and PrejudiceÃ¢â¬ , one of the major themes is love and marriage. Elizabeth is portrayed as a movement towards womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and what is wrong with society and their views of women as material possessions or collateral. Jane Austen seems to do this in a satirical way by bringing light to these issues in a comical romance, hidden in the humor. On the very first page of the novel, you have Mrs. Bennet not only desperately wanting to marry off her five daughters, but also to aRead MoreEssay on Theme of Marriage in Pride and Prejudice2517 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesHow is marriage presented in Pride and Prejudice? Marriage is an important theme in the novel Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËPride and PrejudiceÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ by Jane Austin and it is portrayed in many different ways. Even the very first line displays this theme, as it says Ã¢â¬ËIt is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife,Ã¢â¬â¢ which is said by the narrator. This is a clever opening as it brings you straight into the main theme of marriage, while also introducing theRead More The Theme of Marriage in Jane Austens Pride And Prejudice Essay841 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Theme of Marriage in Jane Austens Pride And Prejudice One of the main themes in Pride And Prejudice is marriage. Throughout the novel, the author describes the various types of marriages and reasons behind them. It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife. The novel demonstrates how many women need to marry men they are not in love with simply in order to gain financial security. The firstRead MoreThe Theme of Marriage in Jane Austens Pride and Prejudice Essay1801 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Theme of Marriage in Jane Austens Pride and Prejudice Marriage has been one of the main themes portrayed in Jane Austens novel of Pride and Prejudice. The author skilfully discusses, through most of her characters about the general views on marriage, the usual outcomes of marriage and most of the general problems the low class people are facing in marriage. There are four marriages in the novel and each of them differs in the way they are set out. The authorRead MoreJane Austen s Pride And Prejudice861 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the article Ã¢â¬Å"Pride and Prejudice - Inversion and Criticism of the Romantic NovelÃ¢â¬ written by Koh Tsin Yen, Yen thoroughly explains a deeper meaning of Pride and Prejudice from both hers and AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective of the novel. In Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Pride and Prejudice, which takes place in the 19th century, Austen portrays marriage and social class as two themes with an extreme importance. While tying together two similar points of views, Yen also incorporates Austen s themes from her novel asRead More Women and Marriage in Jane Austens Pride and Prejudice Essay examples663 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesWomen and Marriage in Jane Austens Pride and Prejudice And they lived happily ever after... Or did they? Pride and Prejudice, a captivating novel written by Jane Austen, is the story of Elizabeth and her adventure challenging society and ending up deep in true love. Pride and Prejudice takes place in a town outside of London called Hertfordshire, where the reader follows Elizabeth, her friends, and her family as they search for love in the nineteenth century. The author writes of ElizabethsRead MoreComparative Study: Letters to Alice and Pride and Prejudice1502 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesportrayed in Pride and Prejudice are creatively reshaped in Letters to Alice. The two texts, Letters to Alice and Pride and Prejudice, mirror and contrast the central values shared and explored by evaluating them; presenting them against Jane Austens context and that of Fay Weldon. Mirroring Austens novel, Weldon presents the central values for women such as the social values of moral behaviour, independence, and, literary values of reading and writing, from Pride and Prejudice and adapts themRead MoreRealism in Pride and Prejudice1412 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrealism is appropriate to the main themes of the novel. 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The novel, through AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s ironic and subtle writing style, is far more than just a romantic comedy, since it skillfully addresses and combines the political, economic, philosophical and feminist themes of its periodRead MorePride and Prejudice Narrative Style Essay1285 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJane Austen the author of Pride and Prejudice a novel where irony is considered the foundation for this novel. Irony, humour and the extensive use of dialogue complement each other to create an inviting novel for potential readers to lose themselves in. Irony is used to show the difference in truth and the way things may seem. Austen uses irony to create deeper emotions and laugh and characters perceptions in the novel. Humour is also used to show relationships but to guide the reader to understand
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Question: Discuss about the Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility and Gaining. Answer: Introduction The assignment is aimed at understanding the concept of corporate social responsibility and gaining a deep insight into the arguments that are in favour and against the companies that demonstrate corporate social responsibilities. The assignment also discusses some important activities of Google, which the company is carrying out to demonstrate its corporate social responsibilities. Corporate Social Responsibility Corporate social responsibility, also known as CSR, is defined as a business approach that aims at working towards the betterment of the society, environment and the stakeholders without expecting anything in return. Corporate social responsibility is a relatively new concept that has come into limelight in the past few decades (Lexicon.ft.com, 2016). The companies these days are under a lot of market pressure and even the customers want to be attached to those companies which are concerned about the stakeholders and the environment in which they are working. Further, with the rising levels of global warming, the companies too have realized that they have been degrading the environment over the past few decades and it is the right time to start working towards protecting the environment in which they have been working. As a result, companies nowadays are demonstrating their corporate social responsibilities in a number of ways (Corporate Social Responsibility, 2016). Let us now discu ss some common ways in which companies are trying to demonstrate their corporate social responsibility: Environmental efforts one of the most common ways in which business organisations are trying to become more responsible towards the society is by adopting the principles of environmental stability into all the business decisions that help in minimising the impact of a companys activities on the environment. Philanthropy another common way of demonstrating ones responsibility towards the society is by donating money to organisations that work for some social causes or to some national or international charity organisations. Ethical labour practices corporate social responsibility also covers the employees, who are an important stakeholder in the business. Thus, by following ethical labour practices, companies are trying to demonstrate their corporate social responsibility towards the employees. Volunteering another market trend, which has recently become famous, to demonstrate social corporate responsibility is by attending volunteer events in order to polish the image of the company in the market. Arguments in Favour of Companies Practicing Corporate Social Responsibility Many people are of the view that corporate social responsibility is just a simple concept that exists in papers or in books and a concept that the companies can use to improve their market image. It might be hard to believe for such people that corporate social responsibility is actually a full-fledged concept for which business organisations are spending millions of dollars every year. They not only do it to achieve a better image in the market but are doing it because they have understood the importance of working towards the society, which is the key to all the business activities. Let us now discuss some arguments that are made in the favour of those companies that demonstrate corporate social responsibility: Satisfied employees corporate social responsibility does not only cover acting responsibly towards the environment or the customers but also extends to the employees as well. Employees love it when the company gives them extra attention and feel proud when they are working for a company that plays an important role towards the betterment of the society and the environment. When a company demonstrates its responsibilities towards the society, it improves its image in the market and is able to keep its employees happy (Mahajan, n.d.). As a result, the productivity increases and the employees become more committed towards their jobs and the organisation. Satisfied customers it has been found that the customers love to get into business with those companies that are responsible towards the environment and the society. It has also been found that the sales of environment or eco-friendly products are greater than the normal products. A study conducted by IBM concluded that majority of the business executives were of the view that the companies could achieve market competencies by demonstrating their social responsibilities towards the stakeholders. Positive promotion positive promotion is one of the prime reasons that motivate business organisations to demonstrate their corporate social responsibilities. Companies that demonstrate their corporate social responsibilities in the public are able to achieve a lot of positive promotion for them. Instead of investing millions of dollars into advertising and promotional campaigns, companies can instead invest the same amount of money into social causes and can find better promotional opportunities (Mahajan, n.d.). In fact, an act of responsibility towards the environment or the stakeholders is always appreciated by the media, which obviously attracts a lot of market attention. Cost reductions another benefit of demonstrating corporate social responsibility is that it helps in decreasing the operational costs instead of increasing them. If a company is able to properly execute its responsibilities towards the environment or the society, it can save a lot of important resources from going waste. For example, a company can reduce its operational costs by saving energy and ensuring that all the appliances, machines and other such equipment are turned off when not in use. On the other hand, good deeds intended towards the stakeholders also help in retaining and attracting talented employees. Thus, a company can easily bring down its operational costs to a great extent if it is able to demonstrate some corporate social responsibilities. Better business opportunities indulging into corporate social responsibilities also help companies in opening up new and potential business opportunities that can become a turning point in the companys timeline. Good deeds in the market can attract a lot of like-minded customers, business owners, suppliers, etc. and by joining hands with them companies can open up a lot of business opportunities for themselves (Trong Tuan, 2012). Arguments Against Companies Practicing Corporate Social Responsibility Like any other thing in this world corporate social responsibility too has its cons and pros. Where some people really appreciate the concerns that the companies have for the environment, society and the stakeholders, there are some who consider it to be not so good for the business of an organisation. Let us now get a deeper insight into the arguments that are against the companies that practice corporate social responsibilities: Green washing it has been observed in the past few years that most of the companies, in order to compete with the market leaders, end up making false claims regarding their social corporate responsibilities whereas they do not do anything for the betterment of the society or the environment in actual. A major reason behind this mistake is the clash of interests. The managers are asked to run the company in a way so that the wealth of the stakeholders can be maximised and they stand the risk of losing their jobs if they try to allocate more resources to things such as corporate social responsibilities. Thus, they end up making false claims in the market, which when discovered, can prove to be detrimental to the market image of the company. Such companies lose more than they could have gained by actually doing something for the betterment of the society or the environment (Visser, 2007). Costs one of the major reasons behind the criticism of corporate social responsibilities is that some companies are not able to compete with the other companies in performing good deeds (Visser, 2007). It is obvious that large scale companies can afford to shed millions of dollars every year for demonstrating their corporate social responsibilities, which is not the case with medium or small scale organisations. Medium or small scaled organisations can suffer a huge setback if they try to demonstrate corporate social responsibilities and shed their hard earned money (Zahid, n.d.). Losses to companies it has been noticed a number of times that a few companies end up damaging their own market image in order to demonstrate their concern for the society and the environment. Such companies disclose the shortcomings of their products in case they are found guilty of violating their corporate social responsibility program. it has been experienced a number of times that some companies have called their entire stocks back into the warehouses even after a large portion of the product had already been sold in the market (Lexicon.ft.com, 2016). Shift from profit making objective we have studies in all the books that the prime reason for operating any kind of business is to earn profits. Milton Friedman, a famous economist and a critic of corporate social responsibility, was of the view that indulging into corporate social responsibilities can cause a shift in the focus of the business organisation from maximising the stakeholder wealth to community welfare. He also said that many organisations end up losing their important resources in order to demonstrate their corporate social responsibilities (Zahid, n.d.). A Company Leading in Corporate Social Responsibility Activities For those who believe that businesses are run by selfish business men who cannot spare money for the betterment of the society, it might be shocking to know that corporate social responsibility has changed the way in which business organisations perceive the society, the environment and the stakeholders. So far, companies throughout the world have spent trillions of dollars in order to improve the conditions of the society and to protect the environment from harmful business activities. Google, the leader in the information technology industry, has also demonstrated its concern for the environment, society and the stakeholders. The company has been a lot of initiatives to improve its image and to do something for the betterment of the society. One such initiative that the company has recently taken up is Google Green. Under this program, the company aims at reducing its energy usage by utilizing the energy in the best possible manner and to switch to renewable source of energy wherever possible. The company has been trying its best to foster a workplace culture where the employees are concerned about their surroundings. The company is saving a lot of energy by ensuring that the electronics, which are not being used, are switched off. By ensuring efficient and careful use of energy resources, the company has been able to bring down its data centre energy usage by 50% already. The company has also tried its best to reduce its carbon footprint by taking off 3,000 cards from the roads and starting a shuttle fleet that is now used by Google employees to commute from one place to another. Further, the company has also been recycling products to avoid wastage. Such efforts have not only helped the company in bringing down its operational costs but have also helped them in achieving a better image in the market. It can be observed from the above given facts that the leading companies in the world are actually leading the corporate social responsibility movement by setting examples for their rivals. Google has been performing exceptionally well and has also demonstrated its true concern towards the environment and the stakeholders. Conclusion Even though many people criticise the concept of corporate social responsibility, the benefits of the concept have been known to all. It is an excellent approach that helps business organisation to do something in return for the society and the environment, which helps them in carrying out their business activities. Thus, the companies do have a social obligation towards the society and they should try their best to fulfil it by working for the betterment of the society and protection of the environment. References Corporate Social Responsibility. (2016). IJSR, 5(1), pp.1829-1831. Lexicon.ft.com. (2016). Corporate Social Responsibility (Csr) Definition from Financial Times Lexicon. [online] Available at: https://lexicon.ft.com/Term?term=corporate-social-responsibility--(CSR) [Accessed 20 Aug. 2016]. Mahajan, P. (n.d.). Corporate Social Responsibility: A New Wave in Corporate Governance. SSRN Electronic Journal. Trong Tuan, L. (2012). Corporate social responsibility, ethics, and corporate governance. Social Responsibility Journal, 8(4), pp.547-560. Visser, W. (2007). The A to Z of corporate social responsibility. Chichester, England: John Wiley Sons. Visser, W. (n.d.). The Future of CSR: Towards Transformative CSR, or CSR 2.0. SSRN Electronic Journal. Zahid, J. (n.d.). Corporate Social Responsibility is No Responsibility. SSRN Electronic Journal.
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